Signs and symptoms will begin early in life, but a diagnosis may be made at any age.
A formal diagnosis will use criteria for Code 315.4 Developmental Coordination Disorder from The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5) or for Code 6A04 Developmental Motor Coordination Disorder (Developmental Dyspraxia) in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), the global standard for diagnostic health information. For an official diagnosis, all the criteria in the DSM-5 or the ICD-11, which are fairly similar to each other, must be met.
Here is a high-level summary of the main diagnostic criteria:
- Motor skills are significantly below the level expected for the individual’s age.
- Lack of motor skills and coordination affects activities of daily life at home, school, and/or the workplace.
- Symptoms were present early in life.
- Difficulties with motor skills are not better explained by other medical conditions such as intellectual disability, neurological conditions or visual impairment.
In the United States, Dyspraxia/DCD must be diagnosed by a medical doctor (MD).
A diagnosis will include assessment of the following:
- Medical history including development and symptoms
- Gross and fine motor skills, coordination and balance
- Other possible causes of motor difficulties.
Healthcare professionals providing input for a diagnosis may include:
- Pediatric Neurologist
- Developmental Pediatrician
- Occupational Therapist
- Physical Therapist